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The second of the final three prophets of the Old Testament is Zechariah. His name means "God remembers". Because each word of God's Word is inspired, this presents the theme of the book. Unlike the thunder of Haggai his contemporary, Zechariah gives comforting messages of encouragement! Born as the son of a priest during the Babylonian exile, he seems to have been an orphan. He was called the son of Iddo who was his grandfather.
Returning with the faithful remnant numbering 42,360 individuals under Zerubbabel, he joined those who came to restore the Temple worship of the Lord. His ministry dates to the second year of the King of Persia names Darius Hystapses (521-520 BC). This dates his ministry to 2 months after Haggai stood at the ruins of the Temple and preached his first prophetic sermon. Just as Haggai, God burdened Zechariah for the neglected repair of the Temple. However, God extends his prophetic view far beyond the Jews of his day. God sends him on a prophetic voyage that travels to the very end of redemptive history. He is given such detailed insights surrounding the events of the coming Messiah, the Tribulation, the Golden Millennial Age of Israel and the Reign of Christ that bible teachers of the magnitude of Martin Luther would not even write on some parts of this book. They just couldn’t figure it out. Of course they believed God was through with the Jews and all of this had to be describing the church . . .
To maximize our learning, we may begin by gleaning four broad applications from this great Old Testament prophet:
- Sin will bring God's judgment. Galatians 6:7 Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; for whatever a man sows, that he will also reap. (NKJV)
- God's past dealings with sin should cause us to turn from sin. Matthew 12:41 "The men of Nineveh will rise up in the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and indeed a greater than Jonah [is] here. (NKJV)
- Turning from sin brings blessing. Look at Zechariah 1:3 "Therefore say to them, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts: "Return to Me," says the LORD of hosts, "and I will return to you," says the LORD of hosts. (NKJV). Even the most wicked (Ahab) found mercy in turning. Even the wicked Manasseh was forgiven (II Chr. 33:9-13).
- God like His Word can never be evaded for long! See what God said in Zechariah 1:6 Yet surely My words and My statutes, Which I commanded My servants the prophets, Did they not overtake your fathers? "So they returned and said: 'Just as the LORD of hosts determined to do to us, According to our ways and according to our deeds, So He has dealt with us.' " ' " (NKJV)
Next, because there are many prophetic truths found in this book. The following is a just a listing of them in the order of their future unfolding.
- Israel persecuted by the Antichrist (Jer. 30:5-7; Dan. 12:1; Zech. 13:8; Matt. 24:21-22)
- Jerusalem is ravaged (Zech. 14:1-4)
- Jews flee Jerusalem facilitated by topographical changes (Zech. 14:5)
- A remnant of Israelites turn to the Lord and are forgiven and cleansed (Hosea 14:1-5; Zech. 12:10; 13:1)
- National deliverance of Israel from the Antichrist (Dan. 12:1b; Zech. 12:10; 13:1; Rom. 11:26-27)
- Christ begins His reign on earth (Ps. 72:8; Isa. 9:6-7; Dan. 2:14-35; 44; 7:13-14; Zech. 9:10; Rev. 20:4)
- Topography and geography of the earth changed (Isa. 2:2; Ezek. 47:1-12; 48:8-20; Zech. 14:4, 8, 10)
- Crops abundant (Isa. 27:6; 35:1-2, 6-7; Amos 9:13; Zech. 14:8)
- Feasts of the New Year, Passover, and Tabernacles reinstituted (Ezek. 45:18-25; Zech. 14:16-21)
- Nations worship in Jerusalem (Isa. 2:2-4; Micah 4:2; 7:12; Zech. 8:20-23; 14:16-21)
- Israel at peace in the land (Deut. 30:1-10; Isa. 32:18; Hosea 14:5, 7; Amos 9:15; Micah 4:4; 5:4-5a; Zech. 3:10; 14:11)
- Christ rules over and judges the nations (Isa. 11:3-5; Micah 4:2-3a; Zech. 14:9; Rev. 19:15)
- Universal peace prevails (Isa. 2:4; 32:17-18; 60:18; Hosea 2:18; Micah 4:2-4; 5:4; Zech. 9:10).
- Jerusalem made the world’s capital (Jer. 3:17; Ezek. 48:30-35; Joel 3:16-17; Micah 4:1, 6-8; Zech. 8:2-3)
- God remembers his Word: The Ten Symbolic Visions (1-8)
- The vision (#1) of the four horses (1:7-17) GOD IS SOVEREIGN IN HISTORY.
- Myrtle trees symbolize Israel. Just as the myrtles grow in Persia and Assyria, Israel was dispersed throughout these nations. The gentile nations were unconcerned for the condition of God's people.
- The "I am returned" is a prophetic perfect which means "I will surely return" (v. 16). This is the promise that Messiah will come. God's house will yet be built in Jerusalem: This refers to the Millennial temple. The cities through prosperity shall yet be spread abroad (v. 17). Jehovah shall yet comfort Zion.
- The vision (#2) of the four horns (1:18-19) GOD WILL JUDGE SIN.
- The Display of Gentile Nations which scattered Israel.
- Which four? Its not clear because Assyria, Egypt, Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome all troubled Israel. Most damaging were Assyria, Babylon and Rome!
- The vision (#3) of the four craftsmen (1:20-21). God will expose and repay all wrongs.
- The Destruction of the Gentile Nations that scattered Israel.
- Which ones? Perhaps Medo-Persians who toppled Babylon; Greece under Alexander who crushed Persia; Rome which ended the Greek Empire and the final future power is none other than the Carpenter of Nazareth who overthrows all who scatter Israel!
- The vision (#4) of the surveyor with the measuring line (chap. 2) GOD HAS FUTURE PLANS FOR ISRAEL.
- The Perspectives of the Lord (2:1-5)
- The Priorities of the Lord (2:6-7)
- The Punishments of the Lord (2:8-9)
- The Privileges of the Lord (2:10-13) Jehovah shall choose Jerusalem again (v. 12). This is the only time in the Bible that Palestine is called the "holy land." The term does not fit today, but it will be suitable in the Millennium.
- The vision (#5) of a Righteous Israel (chap. 3) GOD WILL CLEANSE HIS PEOPLE.
- The cleansing and crowning of Joshua. He represents the defiled and soiled nation of Israel.
- The Satanic attacks are constant upon God's people.
- The vision (#6) of the Coming and Crowning of Jesus (3:8-10) as the Branch. The four uses of this title of Christ speak of His four Gospel portraits:
- Matthew is seen in the Perfect King, the Branch of David in Isaiah 11:1 There shall come forth a Rod from the stem of Jesse, And a Branch shall grow out of his roots. (NKJV). Jesus is the King of the Jews.
- Mark is seen in the Perfect Servant of Zechariah 3:8 'Hear, O Joshua, the high priest, You and your companions who sit before you, For they are a wondrous sign; For behold, I am bringing forth My Servant the BRANCH. (NKJV). Jesus is the One who came to serve.
- Luke is seen in Perfect Man of Zechariah 6:12 "Then speak to him, saying, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts, saying: "Behold, the Man whose name [is] the BRANCH! From His place He shall branch out, And He shall build the temple of the LORD; (NKJV). Jesus is the true and perfectly human One.
- John is seen as the Perfect One of God. In Isaiah 4:2 In that day the Branch of the LORD shall be beautiful and glorious; And the fruit of the earth [shall be] excellent and appealing For those of Israel who have escaped. (NKJV). Jesus is the perfect representation of God for He is ever God the Son, coequal and eternal with the Father!
- Messiah is also referred to as the stone with seven eyes (3:9, 4:10). The seven eyes may refer to His omniscience. They may refer to the sevenfold Spirit that rests upon Him (Rev. 5:6).
- The vision (# 7) of the gold lampstand and the two olive trees (chap. 4). Here we see only in the perfect priest-king Christ can the ultimate fulfillment come. Joshua and Zerubbabel as well as the 2 witnesses of Rev. 11 are partial fulfillments.
- The Return to God's Way (4:1-7)
- Israel will shine forth with the light of Messiah. The work will be accomplished by the Spirit of Jehovah (v. 6).
- "The two Hebrew words for "might" and "power" denote inner strength, . . . inherent power, courageous bravery, fortitude as well as manpower, large numbers of soldiers, riches, leaders, well co-ordinated organizations, good financial systems, etc. The Lord’s work, the building of His Temple, the inner growth, the expansion of His church cannot be properly carried out by mere external means. Human strength and wisdom alone will fail. My Spirit must do it". 
- When God wants to do something in our life He wants to get all the credit. Are you relying on the strength of the flesh? the wisdom of the world? the methods of the earth or heaven? Ask and see the Lord do something we could never plan, orchestrate or do on our own so that when it happens - He will get all the glory!
- The Apostle Paul speaks about what Spirit led and filled ministry looks like. Ministry that comes from our inadequacy has His Authenticity 2 Corinthians 2:16-17 To the one [we are] the aroma of death [leading] to death, and to the other the aroma of life [leading] to life. And who [is] sufficient for these things? 17 For we are not, as so many, peddling the word of God; but as of sincerity, but as from God, we speak in the sight of God in Christ. (NKJV). Spiritual ministry concerns itself with individuals 2 Corinthians 3:1-4 Do we begin again to commend ourselves? Or do we need, as some [others,] epistles of commendation to you or [letters] of commendation from you? 2 You are our epistle written in our hearts, known and read by all men; 3 clearly [you are] an epistle of Christ, ministered by us, written not with ink but by the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of flesh, [that is,] of the heart. 4 And we have such trust through Christ toward God. (NKJV). Finally there is genuine servant heartedness evident 2 Corinthians 3:6 who also made us sufficient as ministers of the new covenant, not of the letter but of the Spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life. (NKJV).
- The Restoration of God's Worship (4:8-10)
- The Results of God's Wrath (4:11-14)
- The vision (# 8) of the flying scroll (5:1-4). The Convicting Power of His Word.
- A scroll symbolizes God's Word. The two command stand for all. Israel is guilty of breaking God's Law.
- Sin will be judged over the whole earth. This is a necessity before the Kingdom can be established.
- The vision (#9) of the woman in the ephah (5:5-11). The Condemning Power of the Word.
- The Container v. 5-6 Then the angel who talked with me came out and said to me, "Lift your eyes now, and see what this is that goes forth." So I asked, "What is it?" And he said, "It is a basket that is going forth." He also said, "This is their resemblance throughout the earth: (NKJV). An ephah was the largest dry measure. It speaks of something coming in its fullness.
- The Cover v. 7 "Here is a lead disc lifted up, and this is a woman sitting inside the basket"; (NKJV)
- The Contents v. 7-8 "Here is a lead disc lifted up, and this is a woman sitting inside the basket"; 8 then he said, "This is Wickedness!" And he thrust her down into the basket, and threw the lead cover over its mouth. (NKJV)
- The Carriers v. 9 Then I raised my eyes and looked, and there were two women, coming with the wind in their wings; for they had wings like the wings of a stork, and they lifted up the basket between earth and heaven. (NKJV)
- The Comments v. 10-11 So I said to the angel who talked with me, "Where are they carrying the basket?" And he said to me, "To build a house for it in the land of Shinar; when it is ready, the basket will be set there on its base." (NKJV). Israel had learned the evils of greed in Babylon.
- The vision (# 10) of the four chariots (6:1-8). GOD IS SOVEREIGN JUDGE.
- The symbolic act concluding the vision (6:9-15)
- The symbolic crowning (6:9-11). Joshua the high priest is typical of the Messiah (v. 11).
- The prophetic message (6:12-13). The man whose name is the Branch shall build the temple of the Lord. This refers to the Millennial temple (v. 12). He shall bear the glory and shall rule (v. 13).The Messiah shall be both a priest and a king (v. 13). He will unite in Himself the offices of king and priest.
- The visible memorial (6:14)
- The universal significance (6:15)
- He will vindicate the Old Testament prophecies (v. 15). Many that are far off shall come and join in the service and worship (v. 15; Is. 56:6-7).
- The Four Explanatory Messages (chaps. 7-8)
- The messages required by the question about fasting (7:1-3)
- The messages declared as the answer from the Lord (7:4-8:23)
- A message of rebuke (7:4-7)
- A message of repentance (7:8-14)
- A message of restoration (8:1-17)
- The "I am returned" is again a prophetic perfect (v. 3). This means "I will assuredly return to Zion." Again this can be fulfilled only by the Millennial reign.
- Jehovah will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem. Jerusalem will be called: The City of Truth. The mountain of Jehovah of hosts. The Holy Mountain.
- People will one day live to an old age in Jerusalem (v. 4). The streets of the city shall be full of boys and girls playing in the streets thereof (v. 5).
- Jehovah will regather Israel from the east and the west ( v.7). This is the restoration from the present worldwide dispersion. They shall dwell in the midst of Jerusalem (v. 8).
- The amillennial interpreters would make this symbolic of the church (Leupold, Keil, Pusey). But it is hard to see that this can mean anything other than the literal restoration of Israel.
- A message of rejoicing (8:18-23)
- God remembers his plan for a Future Hope (chaps. 9-14)
- The false shepherds exposed (9:1-8)
- Alexander the Great, human: The intervening judgments on nations surrounding Israel (9:1-8)
- v. 1 Syria to be conquered. It was in the battle of Issus in 333 BC when Alexander defeated Persia.
- v. 2-4 Tyre would fall because of her pride. She was led by Satan (Ezekiel 28). What the Assyrian King Shalmaneser IV couldn’t do in 5 years, Babylon’s Nebuchadnezzar couldn’t do in 13 years, Alexander does in 7 months. It was God's time for them to fall in judgment.
- v. 5-7 Philistia fell next. Gaza lasted only 5 months. It was God's wrath upon the evils of their idolatries.
- v. 8 Jerusalem will be spared by God. As Alexander heads to the north he comes to Jerusalem. But God says they will be protected by God. Are they? Yes. As the High Priest goes out to meet him historian Josephus records that Alexander spares them. He claims a dream led him to spare them. God keeps His Word.
- the true shepherd revealed: Lord Jesus Christ, Divine: The blessings of the Messiah (9:9-10:12) He is Royal "King", Righteous "just", Redeemer "salvation" and Reachable "lowly". (9:9)
- As the good Shepherd He laid down His life for His sheep (John 10:11, 15 ; comp. Psa. 22);
- as the great Shepherd He is the One risen from the dead in the power of the blood of the eternal covenant (Heb.13:20-21; comp. Psa. 23);
- as the chief Shepherd He will come again and give His undershepherds the crown of honor (I Pet. 5: 2-4; COMP. Psa.24).
- But in the present age He carries out a sevenfold service as Shepherd :
- Prophetically He is (10:4) called:
- The Cornerstone Isaiah 28:16 Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: "Behold, I lay in Zion a stone for a foundation, A tried stone, a precious cornerstone, a sure foundation; Whoever believes will not act hastily. (NKJV); 1 Peter 2:5-7 you also, as living stones, are being built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. 6 Therefore it is also contained in the Scripture, "Behold, I lay in Zion A chief cornerstone, elect, precious, And he who believes on Him will by no means be put to shame." 7 Therefore, to you who believe, [He is] precious; but to those who are disobedient, "The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief cornerstone," (NKJV).
- the Nail this is an illusion to the nail in the tent center pole upon which valuables were hung. Isaiah 22:23-24 I will fasten him [as] a peg in a secure place, And he will become a glorious throne to his father's house. 24 'They will hang on him all the glory of his father's house, the offspring and the posterity, all vessels of small quantity, from the cups to all the pitchers. (NKJV). So Christ was in Zechariah 6:13 Yes, He shall build the temple of the LORD. He shall bear the glory, And shall sit and rule on His throne; So He shall be a priest on His throne, And the counsel of peace shall be between them both." ' (NKJV)
- A Battle bow is the picture of the Conquering Christ as in Revelation 19:11-16 Now I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse. And He who sat on him [was] called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He judges and makes war. 12 His eyes [were] like a flame of fire, and on His head [were] many crowns. He had a name written that no one knew except Himself. 13 He [was] clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The Word of God. 14 And the armies in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, followed Him on white horses. 15 Now out of His mouth goes a sharp sword, that with it He should strike the nations. And He Himself will rule them with a rod of iron. He Himself treads the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. 16 And He has on [His] robe and on His thigh a name written: KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS. (NKJV).
- The good shepherd rejected and its consequences for Israel (chap. 11)
- Jerusalem Destroyed (11:1-3). Josephus records that in AD 70 Titus destroyed the city killing 1,100,000 people. A total 985 towns and villages were also destroyed. The times were so horrific that mothers were actually starving to death and eating their own children to stay alive! Apart from God's plan the entire Jewish race would have disappeared.
- Jesus Betrayed (11:12-13). The staff, beauty, is cut asunder that he might break his covenant with the peoples (v. 10). The poor of the flock (the remnant) knew that it was the word of Jehovah (v. 11). Israel rejects the Good Shepherd (vs. 12-13). The price was the price of a slave: thirty pieces of silver. This sum was certainly an insult. He cast the silver to the potter in the house of Jehovah (v. 13). This means that he cast it down in the house of Jehovah so that it would go to the potter. All of this was fulfilled by Judas (Matt. 27:5-10). That the One who healed their sick, raised their dead, fed their families was worth no more than a common slave is so indicative of their hardness to Him.
- Judas Despaired (11:13). The 30 pieces come back to haunt the betrayer. After his suicide the priests buy the potter’s field burial ground. (Matthew 27:3-10).
- jesus imitated by The Antichrist (11:15-17)
- The Antichrist is Super Mind in Daniel 7:8 "I was considering the horns, and there was another horn, a little one, coming up among them, before whom three of the first horns were plucked out by the roots. And there, in this horn, [were] eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking pompous words. (NKJV)
- The Antichrist is Super Mouth in Daniel 7:8 and a mouth speaking pompous words. (NKJV)
- The Antichrist is Super Man (politician) in Revelation 6:2 And I looked, and behold, a white horse. He who sat on it had a bow; and a crown was given to him, and he went out conquering and to conquer. (NKJV); Daniel 11:21 "And in his place shall arise a vile person, to whom they will not give the honor of royalty; but he shall come in peaceably, and seize the kingdom by intrigue. (NKJV).
- The Antichrist is Super Money in Daniel 8:25 "Through his cunning He shall cause deceit to prosper under his rule; And he shall exalt [himself] in his heart. He shall destroy many in [their] prosperity. He shall even rise against the Prince of princes; But he shall be broken without [human] means. (NKJV). See also Rev. 18.
- The Antichrist is Super Master (military) in Daniel 7:23 Thus he said: 'The fourth beast shall be A fourth kingdom on earth, Which shall be different from all [other] kingdoms, And shall devour the whole earth, Trample it and break it in pieces. (NKJV); Revelation 13:4-7 So they worshiped the dragon who gave authority to the beast; and they worshiped the beast, saying, "Who [is] like the beast? Who is able to make war with him?", 7 It was granted to him to make war with the saints and to overcome them. And authority was given him over every tribe, tongue, and nation. (NKJV). He rules the world!
- The Antichrist is Super Megalomaniac (ego) in 2 Thessalonians 2:3-4 Let no one deceive you by any means; for [that Day will not come] unless the falling away comes first, and the man of sin is revealed, the son of perdition, 4 who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God or that is worshiped, so that he sits as God in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God. (NKJV).
- israel redeemed (chap. 12)
- The Hopeless Situation v. 1-3 with two metaphors and four armies:
- "cup of trembling" is lit. a basin big enough for a crowd to intoxicate themselves. All who attack are staggering.
- "burdensome stone" is a heavy stone used in weight lifting. Israel herniates all who try to throw her down.
- The armies of the west (Dan. 7:7-8,24; Rev. 17:12-14) which are the Roman Empires ten toes; the north (Ezek. 38:1-6, 14-16) this best describes the area of the former Soviet Union; the South (Dan. 11:40-44) this is Egypt and the African Moslem bloc; the East (Rev. 9:13-16; 16:12-16) this is China, Japan, India and the Moslem hordes?
- The Result? Revelation 14:20 And the winepress was trampled outside the city, and blood came out of the winepress, up to the horses' bridles, for one thousand six hundred furlongs. (NKJV); Psalm 118:6-7 The LORD [is] on my side; I will not fear. What can man do to me? 7 The LORD is for me among those who help me; Therefore I shall see [my desire] on those who hate me. (NKJV) also v. 10-12.
- The Incredible Deliverance ( v. 4-9)
- The Work of Salvation in the national conversion of Israel (vs. 10-14).
- Jehovah will pour upon the house of David the Spirit of grace and supplications (v. 10).
- This should not be confused with Pentecost. No vast mourning took place after that. They shall look upon Me whom they have pierced. This refers directly to the crucifixion of Messiah.
- When Christ appears in glory, they will recognize what they have done to their own Messiah (Rev. 1:7).
- They will mourn for Him greatly. They will mourn as for the death of an only son. They will mourn individually and by families (vs. 11-14). This presupposes true repentance and conversion (Rom. 11:26-29).
- israel cleansed (chap. 13)
- The Fountain cleanses sin and impurity Zechariah 13:1 "In that day a fountain shall be opened for the house of David and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness. (NKJV).
- This is Christ's blood cleansing away the penalty and power of sin.
There is a fountain filled with blood
Drawn from Immanuel’s veins;
And sinners plunged beneath that flood
Lose all their guilty stains;
Lose all their guilty stains;
Lose all their guilty stains;
And sinners plunged beneath that flood
Lose all their guilty stains.
The dying thief rejoiced to see
That fountain in His day;
And there may I, though vile as he,
Wash all my sins away;
Wash all my sins away;
Wash all my sins away;
And there may I, though vile as he,
Wash all my sins away.
Dear dying Lamb, Thy precious blood
Shall never lose its pow’r
Till all the ransomed church of God
Be saved to sin no more;
Be saved to sin no more;
Be saved to sin no more;
Till all the ransomed church of God
Be saved to sin no more.
- Israel led by their King (chap. 14)
- The last phase of Armageddon (vs. 1-3).
- This happens in the day of Jehovah (v. 1). It is impossible to make this fit some past historical battle. It is the concluding violence of the Tribulation period.
- All nations will be gathered against Jerusalem to battle (v. 2). The power of the Jews will be crushed. Jerusalem will be taken and sacked. Half of the inhabitants will be taken into captivity. They will have no power left to trust except Jehovah.
- When the destruction is at its peak, then Jehovah will go forth to fight against those nations (v. 3).
- The Second Coming in glory (vs. 4-7).
- His feet shall stand in that day on the Mount of Olives (v. 4). This is the personal, visible return in glory. The Mount of Olives will be split east and west by a great valley.
- People will flee before the earthquake (v. 5). Jehovah shall come and all the saints with Him.
- In that day the light will be changed (vs. 6-7). It will be a unique day: neither day nor night.
- The Millennial Kingdom (vs. 8-21).
- In that day living waters will go out from Jerusalem (v. 8). Part of the waters will go toward the Mediterranean Sea and part toward the Dead Sea. Jerusalem will be the high point, so that waters can flow in both directions. The waters will flow in all seasons, not just in winter.
- Jehovah shall be king over all the earth (v. 9). This means over the whole earth, not just Palestine. The New Testament looks forward to this also (Rev. 11:15).
- There will be great physical changes in the land (v. 10). The places named are its widest boundaries.
- Jerusalem shall be safely inhabited (v. 11). There shall be no more utter destruction.
- Jehovah shall destroy all the enemies of Israel (vs. 12-15).
- In the day of the Lord their flesh shall consume away (v. 12).
- They shall fight against one another (v. 13).
- Israel shall gather the wealth of all the heathen (v.14).
- All the nations which are left shall go up to Jerusalem to worship Jehovah at the Feast of Tabernacles (v. 16).
- Whoever will not come to worship will have no rain (v.17).
- Rebellion will be visited by the plague (vs. 18-19). Egypt is specifically mentioned in this connection. This is an example of Messiah's rule with the rod of iron (Ps. 2:8-12; Rev. 19:15).
- Every common item of life shall be holiness to Jehovah (vs. 20-21). All life will be dedicated to Jehovah. There will be no more unbelievers in the house of Jehovah (v. 21).